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No Resistance to Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Through 96 Weeks of Treatment in Patients With Lamivudine-Resistant Chronic Hepatitis B

      Background & Aims

      A recent study compared the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) vs the combination of emtricitabine and TDF (FTC/TDF) in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B who were treated for as long as 96 weeks. We report findings from resistance analyses conducted for this study.

      Methods

      Two hundred eighty patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and lamivudine resistance (confirmed by INNO-LiPA Multi-DR) were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups treated with TDF or FTC/TDF. The HBV reverse transcriptase domain from the polymerase gene from all patients was sequenced at baseline and from 18 viremic patients at week 96 or early discontinuation.

      Results

      At screening for the efficacy study, 99% of patients were found to have lamivudine resistance. Prior exposure to entecavir or entecavir resistance was observed in 12% of patients, and 22% of patients had been previously exposed to adefovir; 1.8% were resistant to adefovir. Only 18 patients (6.4%) qualified for sequence analysis, including 1 patient who experienced virologic breakthrough and 17 with persistent viremia. Six of these patients did not have any sequence changes from baseline in HBV reverse transcriptase (33%), and sequence analysis could not be performed for 5 patients (28%). In 2 patients who qualified for phenotypic analysis (1 given TDF and 1 given FTC/TDF), no resistance to TDF was observed. Neither previous treatment exposure nor resistance to entecavir or adefovir affected viral kinetics. However, the mean baseline level of HBV DNA was significantly higher in viremic patients than in patients with viral suppression by week 96 (7.28 log10 IU/mL vs 5.62 log10 IU/mL; P = .0003).

      Conclusions

      No resistance to TDF was detected through 96 weeks of treatment in patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B. Prior treatment or resistance to entecavir or adefovir did not affect viral kinetics through 96 weeks. No additional benefit was observed with the addition of emtricitabine vs TDF monotherapy. ClinicalTrial.gov number: NCT00737568

      Keywords

      Abbreviations used in this paper:

      ADV (adefovir), ADV-R (adefovir resistance), CHB (chronic hepatitis B), ETV (entecavir), ETV-R (entecavir resistance), FTC (emtricitabine), HBV (hepatitis B virus), LAM (lamivudine), LAM-R (lamivudine resistantance), pol/RT (HBV polymerase/reverse transcriptase), TDF (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate)
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