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Efficacy of a Gluten-Free Diet in Subjects With Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Diarrhea Unaware of Their HLA-DQ2/8 Genotype

Published:December 31, 2015DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2015.12.031

      Background & Aims

      A gluten-containing diet alters bowel barrier function in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D), particularly those who are positive for HLA allele DQ2/8. We studied the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in patients with IBS-D who have not previously considered the effects of gluten in their diet and were unaware of their HLA-DQ2/8 genotype.

      Methods

      We performed a prospective study of 41 patients with IBS-D (20 HLA-DQ2/8-positive and 21 HLA-DQ2/8-negative) at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield, United Kingdom, from September 2012 through July 2015. All subjects were placed on a 6-week GFD following evaluation by a dietician. Subjects completed validated questionnaires at baseline and Week 6 of the GFD. The primary endpoint was mean change in IBS Symptom Severity Score; a 50-point reduction was considered to indicate a clinical response. Secondary endpoints were changes in hospital anxiety and depression score, fatigue impact score, and Short Form-36 results. Clinical responders who chose to continue a GFD after the study period were evaluated on average 18 months later to assess diet durability, symptom scores, and anthropometric and biochemical status.

      Results

      A 6-week GFD reduced IBS Symptom Severity Score by ≥50 points in 29 patients overall (71%). The mean total IBS Symptom Severity Score decreased from 286 before the diet to 131 points after 6 weeks on the diet (P < .001); the reduction was similar in each HLA-DQ group. However, HLA-DQ2/8-negative subjects had a greater reduction in abdominal distention (P = .04). Both groups had marked mean improvements in hospital anxiety and depression scores, fatigue impact score, and Short Form-36 results, although HLA-DQ2/8-positive subjects had a greater reduction in depression score and increase in vitality score than HLA-DQ2/8-negative subjects (P = .02 and P = .03, respectively). Twenty-one of the 29 subjects with a clinical response (72%) planned to continue the GFD long term; 18 months after the study they were still on a GFD, with maintained symptom reductions, and demonstrated similar anthropometric and biochemical features compared with baseline.

      Conclusions

      A dietitian-led GFD provided sustained benefit to patients with IBS-D. The symptoms that improved differed in magnitude according to HLA-DQ status. Clinical trials.gov no: NCT02528929.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations used in this paper:

      CD (celiac disease), FIS (Fatigue Impact Scale), GFD (gluten-free diet), HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), IBS (irritable bowel syndrome), IBS-D (irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea), IBS-SSS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome–Symptom Severity Score), QOL (quality of life), SF-36 (Short Form-36)
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